# Research Skills ## 10 Practical Tips for Academic Writing

Since the beginning of my academic career, I have been struggling with my academic writing. Since 2014, I have read at least 10 books and many articles only on academic writing. During my PhD years, I took a course in academic English writing. Still, for most of my research articles, I use a professional native English speaker proof-reader before submitting ## Introduction to R (Part 2) Data types in R

#########DATA TYPES########## #mainly six (6) types #Type 1: Vector ##Six types of vector:logical(T/F),numeric, integer, complex, charater a=TRUE #logical b=FALSE #logical c=20.5 #numeric d=7L #integer #L to mention integer e=10+5L #comples f=”Research HUB” #charater vec= c(1,4,3,7,90,30,40) #to create a vector vec vec2=c(“hello”, “sorry”, “buzinga”) vec2 sortvec=sort(vec) #sorted from small to large sortvec sortvec2=sort(vec2) #sorted alphabatically sortvec2 vec #gives the vaue in ## Introduction to R (Part 1): Data operators in R

#Specifying a variable #here, variable refer to a reserved memory to store values a=30 b=”Welcome to Research HUB” c= TRUE d= 15 #Data operators (5 categories) #Arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /, ^, %%, %/%) a+d a-d a*d a/d a^2 a%%d #%% gives reminder after division a%/%d #%/% gives round-up dividing number #Assignment operator (=, <-, <<-, ->, ->>) ## Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and Multi-group SEM using R

Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is a multivariate statistical analysis technique that is used to analyze structural relationships among variables. SEM is the combination of factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. Usually factors are created using multiple observed variables through factor analysis. Those factors are called latent variables. Thereafter, multiple regression analysis is performed on latent variables level, not in observed